|TCP/IP and IPX routing Tutorial|
A basic explanation of IPX routing is also included.
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The hosts are connected together by one or more networks. The IP address of any host consists of its network address plus its own host address on the network. IP addressing, unlike, say, IPX addressing, uses one address containing both network and host address.
How much of the address is used for the network portion and how much for the host portion varies from network to network.
Class Prefix Network Number Host Number A 0 Bits 1-7 Bits 8-31 B 10 Bits 2-15 Bits 16-31 C 110 Bits 3-24 Bits 25-31 D 1110 N/A E 1111 N/A
Class Range of Net Numbers Range of Host Numbers A 0 to 126 0.0.1 to 255.255.254 B 128.0 to 191.255 0.1 to 255.254 C 192.0.0 to 254.255.255 1 to 254Any address starting with 127 is a loopback address and should never be used for addressing outside the host. A host number of all binary 1's indicates a directed broadcast over the specific network. For example, 18.104.22.168 would indicate a broadcast over the 200.1.2 network. If the host number is 0, it indicates "this host". If the network number is 0, it indicates "this network" .
All the reserved bits and reserved addresses severely reduce the available IP addresses from the 4.3 billion theoretical maximum. Most users connected to the Internet will be assigned addresses within Class C, as space is becoming very limited. This is the primary reason for the development of IPv6, which will have 128 bits of address space.
Each of these nodes have corresponding Ethernet addresses, which are six
bytes long. They are normally written in hexadecimal form separated by dashes
(02-FE-87-4A-8C-A9 for example).
In the diagram above and subsequent diagrams, we have emphasized the network number portion of the IP address.
Suppose that A wanted to send a packet to C for the first time, and that it knows C's IP address. To send this packet over Ethernet, A would need to know C's Ethernet address. The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used for the dynamic discovery of these addresses .
ARP keeps an internal table of IP address and corresponding Ethernet address. When A attempts to send the IP packet destined to C, the ARP module does a lookup in its table on C's IP address and will discover no entry. ARP will then broadcast a special request packet over the Ethernet segment, which all nodes will receive. If the receiving node has the specified IP address, which in this case is C, it will return its Ethernet address in a reply packet back to A. Once A receives this reply packet, it updates its table and uses the Ethernet address to direct A's packet to C. ARP table entries may be stored statically in some cases, or it keeps entries in its table until they are "stale" in which case they are flushed.
Consider now two separate Ethernet networks that are joined by an IP router,
Device C is acting as a router between these two networks. A router is a device that choses different paths for the network packets, based on the addressing of the IP frame is is handling. Different routes connect to different networks. The router will have more than one address as each route is part of a different network.
Since there are two separate Ethernet segments, each network has its own Class C network number. This is necessary because the router must know which network interface to use to reach a specific node, and each interface is assigned a network number. If A wants to send a packet to E, it must first send it to C who can then forward the packet to E. This is accomplished by having A use C's Ethernet address, but E's IP address. C will receive a packet destined to E and will then forward it using E's Ethernet address. These Ethernet addresses are obtained using ARP as described earlier.
If E was assigned the same network number as A, 200.1.2, A would then try to reach E in the same way it reached C in the previous example - by sending an ARP request and hoping for a reply. However, because E is on a different physical wire, it will never see the ARP request and so the packet cannot be delivered. By specifying that E is on a different network, the IP module in A will know that E cannot be reached without having it forwarded by some node on the same network as A.
Indirect routing is used when the network numbers of the source and destination do not match. This is the case where the packet must be forwarded by a node that knows how to reach the destination.
In the last example, A wanted to send a packet to E. For A to know how to reach E, it must be given routing information that tells it who to send the packet to in order to reach E. This special node is the "gateway" or router between the two networks. A Unix-style method for adding a routing entry to A is
route add [destination_ip] [gateway] [metric]Where the metric value is the number of hops to the destination. In this case,
route add 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 1will tell A to use C as the gateway to reach E. Similarly, for E to reach A,
route add 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 1will be used to tell E to use C as the gateway to reach A.
It is necessary that C have two IP addresses - one for each network interface. This way, A knows from C's IP address that it is on its own network, and similarly for E. Within C, the routing module will know from the network number of each interface which one to use for forwarding IP packets.
In most cases it will not be necessary to manually add this routing entry. It would normally be sufficient to set up C as the default gateway for all other nodes on both networks. The default gateway is the IP address of the machine to send all packets to that are not destined to a node on the directly-connected network. The routing table in the default gateway will be set up to forward the packets properly, which will be discussed in detail later.
Dynamic routing uses special routing information protocols to automatically update the routing table with routes known by peer routers. These protocols are grouped according to whether they are Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs) or Exterior Gateway Protocols. Interior gateway protocols are used to distribute routing information inside of an Autonomous System (AS). An AS is a set of routers inside the domain administered by one authority. Examples of interior gateway protocols are OSPF and RIP. Exterior gateway protocols are used for inter-AS routing, so that each AS may be aware of how to reach others throughout the Internet. Examples of exterior gateway protocols are EGP and BGP. See RFC 1716  for more information on IP router operations.
The netmask becomes very important, and more complicated, when "classless" addressing is used.
Consider the following example of a small organization consisting of two Ethernet segments connecting to an Internet service provider using a WAN router that emulates an additional network segment, such as FPIPE. The service provider has been allocated several different Class C addresses to be used for its clients. This particular organization has been allocated the network number 210.20.30, and the gateway address at the provider end is 220.127.116.11.
Networks 18.104.22.168->63, 22.214.171.124->127, 126.96.36.199->255 Netmask 255.255.255.192
We have expanded the last byte of the IP address so that we can show the network subaddressing. The standard IP address nomeclature is shown below this expanded version.
If the organization happened to have just one computer, C, and the entire Class C address is available for use, then the IP address for C may be anything in the range 188.8.131.52 to 184.108.40.206, and its default gateway would be 220.127.116.11 with netmask 255.255.255.0.
However, with two networks plus FPIPE, which must also be on its own network, the Class C address must somehow be subnetted. This is accomplished by using one or more of the bits that are normally allocated to the host number as part of the Class C address, in order to extend the size of the network number. In this case, 210.20.30 has been extended to include four networks, and the netmask has changed to 255.255.255.192 to reflect the additional use of two bits for the network number in the IP address.
Writing the netmask 255.255.255.192 in binary (from FFFFFFC0 in hex) is
11111111/11111111/11111111/11000000, with /' separating the bytes for clarity.
Since the organization is allocated all of 210.20.30 (D2141E hex), it has the
use of the four following network numbers (in binary):
Net# IP Network Number 0 11010010/00010100/00011110/00 1 11010010/00010100/00011110/01 2 11010010/00010100/00011110/10 3 11010010/00010100/00011110/11This leaves 6 bits at the end to use for host number, leaving space for 62 host nodes per network (all 0's and all 1's are reserved). The following addresses are therefore valid for hosts to use:
Net# Address Range 0 18.104.22.168 to 22.214.171.124 1 126.96.36.199 to 188.8.131.52 2 184.108.40.206 to 220.127.116.11 3 18.104.22.168 to 22.214.171.124In this example, Net#2 is reserved for future use.
Interface IP Address Netmask Node A 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.192 Node B 188.8.131.52 255.255.255.192 Node C (AB) 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.192 Node C (DE) 220.127.116.11 255.255.255.192 Node C (WAN) 18.104.22.168 255.255.255.192 Node E 22.214.171.124 255.255.255.192 Node F 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.192The routing tables will be set for each node as follows. The destination address 0.0.0.0 indicates the default destination, if no other specific routes are configured for the given packet destination. This default destination is where all packets will be sent, and it is assumed that this destination is capable of forwarding these packets to the ultimate destination, or to another router along the appropriate path.
Node A: Network Address Netmask Gateway Interface 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 Node B: Network Address Netmask Gateway Interface 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 255.255.255.192 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 Node C: Network Address Netmask Gateway Interface 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.192 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 255.255.255.192 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.192 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 Node E: Network Address Netmask Gateway Interface 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 255.255.255.192 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 Node F: Network Address Netmask Gateway Interface 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.192 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 Node G: Network Address Netmask Gateway Interface 220.127.116.11 255.255.255.0 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124(Plus all other pertinent entries)
The metric value, or hop count, is optional, but would be 0 for all gateways that are the same as the hosts, and greater than 0 if the destination is reached via one or more gateways. The metric for the default routes are indeterminate, but would always be at least 1.
For example, if D sent an ICMP echo request packet out onto the Internet, let's say to address 126.96.36.199, then first D would AND the netmask 255.255.255.192 with 188.8.131.52 to determine the network number. It would then find that it does not match the network number 184.108.40.206, and so it chooses the default route which points to the gateway 220.127.116.11. It then uses the Ethernet address of Node C (DE) to forward the IP packet to the gateway.
When C receives this packet, it will see that it is destined to 18.104.22.168. It checks all the routes in its table and determines that this address is not located on any of the listed networks in the routing table, and so it chooses the default route. It uses the WAN interface, of IP address 22.214.171.124 to send the packet to 126.96.36.199 (G). From then on, the packet will propagate from gateway to gateway until it reaches 188.8.131.52. When this node replies, the packet will be inbound on interface 184.108.40.206 (C) with destination address 220.127.116.11 (D). Node C will discover that 18.104.22.168 is on the 22.214.171.124 network and uses the interface 126.96.36.199 to send the packet back home to D.
The netmask for A may be set to 255.255.255.255, indicating no other nodes on the local network, and the gateway is set to 188.8.131.52. A default route must be set up at Node A as well, which provides the route for all packets whose destination does not corresponding to any specific routing entries.
Node A: Network Address Netmask Gateway Interface 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 Node G: Network Address Netmask Gateway Interface 18.104.22.168 255.255.255.255 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199(Plus all other pertinent entries)
The routing for Node G is highly dependent on the context, and the above entry only serves as an example. The netmask of all 1's in this case is used to only allow packets destined to 188.8.131.52 to be forwarded to Node A, as there may be 253 other nodes connected in a similar way under this Class C network 184.108.40.206.
When the protocol stack's configuration asks for a default gateway, specifying 220.127.116.11 will cause the default routing entry 0.0.0.0 to be added automatically. It must be added manually if for some reason the stack does not ask for it.
The specific methods of configuring each protocol stack will be explained in detail in Example 2.
Networks 18.104.22.168->127, 22.214.171.124->255 Netmask 255.255.255.128
Node A is one of the many workstations on the Ethernet segment Net 0. Node Z is the gateway from this Ethernet to the Internet service provider's gateway machine G. Some of the other workstations have been labelled as B to Y for illustration, but will not be referred to in this example as their setup will be the same as for A.
In this case, since only two subnets were needed, only one bit from the host address space need be sacrificed. Writing the netmask 255.255.255.128 in binary (from FFFFFF80 in hex) is 11111111/11111111/11111111/10000000, with /' separating the bytes for clarity. Since the organization is allocated all of 210.20.30 (D2141E hex), it has the use of the two following network numbers (in binary):
Net# IP Network Number 0 11010010/00010100/00011110/0 1 11010010/00010100/00011110/1
Net# Address Range 0 126.96.36.199 to 188.8.131.52 1 184.108.40.206 to 220.127.116.11
Interface IP Address Netmask Node A 18.104.22.168 255.255.255.128 Node Z (Net 0) 22.214.171.124 255.255.255.128 Node Z (Net 1) 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.128
Node A: Network Address Netmask Gateway Interface 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 255.255.255.128 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 Node Z: Network Address Netmask Gateway Interface 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.128 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 255.255.255.128 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 Node G: Network Address Netmask Gateway Interface 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.0 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168(Plus all other pertinent entries)
10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255In this example, the Class B networks 172.20 and 172.21 will be used for each LAN, and the Class C network 192.168.100 will be used for the WAN link.
Networks 172.20.0.0->172.20.255.255 mask 255.255.0.0, 172.21.0.0->172.21.255.255 mask 255.255.0.0, 192.168.100.0->192.168.100.255 mask 255.255.255.0
The IP addresses and netmasks for each interface are:
Interface IP Address Netmask Node A 172.20.1.1 255.255.0.0 Node Y (Net 0) 172.20.254.254 255.255.0.0 Node Y (Net 2) 192.168.100.1 255.255.255.0 Node Z (Net 1) 172.21.254.254 255.255.0.0 Node Z (Net 2) 192.168.100.2 255.255.255.0 Node K 172.21.1.1 255.255.0.0The routing tables will be set for each node as follows. Note that no default routes are listed for routers Y and Z. If Y was Z's default router, and vice versa, routing loops will occur for packets destined to nodes not on either network. It is acceptable for Node A to have a default route to Y, since Y may then discard the packet if the destination is unreachable.
Node A: Network Address Netmask Gateway Interfacei 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.20.254.254 172.20.1.1 172.20.0.0 255.255.0.0 172.20.1.1 172.20.1.1 Node Y: Network Address Netmask Gateway Interface 172.21.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.100.2 192.168.100.1 172.20.0.0 255.255.0.0 172.20.254.254 172.20.254.254 192.168.100.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.100.1 192.168.100.1 Node Z: Network Address Netmask Gateway Interface 172.20.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.100.1 192.168.100.2 172.21.0.0 255.255.0.0 172.21.254.254 172.21.254.254 192.168.100.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.100.2 192.168.100.2 Node K: Network Address Netmask Gateway Interface 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.21.254.254 172.21.1.1 172.21.0.0 255.255.0.0 172.21.1.1 172.21.1.1If several point-to-point WAN links are required throughout the internetwork, the YZ Net 2 link may be subnetted to allow for 64 different point-to-point links within the 192.168.100.0 address space. This is done using the netmask 255.255.255.252, dividing the Class C network into 64 subnets with 2 host bits, allowing for 2 actual node addresses and 2 reserved for "this network" and "broadcast".
Because ipx is always dynamically routed, and the routing architecture works by "learning" network addressing automatically, there is usually no need to do anything special in the setup of an IPX network in order to get routing to function. Thus this section is provided for completeness only.
An IPX address consists of a 4-byte Network Number, a 6-byte Node Number, and a 2-byte Socket Number. The node number is usually the hardware address of the interface card, and must be unique inside the particular IPX network. The network number must be the same for all nodes on a particular physical network segment. Socket numbers correspond to the particular service being accessed. Consider the following IPX network:
Nodes A and D are Novell NetWare workstations, and Nodes B, C and E are Novell NetWare Servers. Node C has two Ethernet cards and acts as an IPX router between the two networks.
The NetWare Servers broadcast routing information and service advertisements to all nodes on the network segment using RIP/SAP or NLSP. Node C forwards this information to connected networks, so that workstations are made aware of the addresses of all file and print servers available, and servers are made aware of the routes to these other servers.
To address a service running on a server, each server has its own Internal Network Number, which is placed in the network number field of the IPX header.
For example, suppose A wants to access the file server E whose internal network number is 5E1C0155. A would have been made aware of E's address through service advertisements broadcasted by C. To learn how to reach E, it broadcasts a routing request. C receives this request and returns its own hardware node number. A therefore addresses an IPX packet to E using E's internal network number of 5E1C0155 and node number 22-5A-4D-8C-C3-DA. The Ethernet header's destination address is Node C's node address of 34-56-78-9A-BC-DE. C then receives this IPX packet and observes that the IPX packet header's destination address is not its own, so it transmits the packet on network DDEEAADD knowing that E is on that network, using an Ethernet header destination address of 22-5A-4D-8C-C3-DA.